RMP130 International Law Course Outline.docxRMP130 International Law Course Outline.docx


The aim of the course is to keep the students up to date as concerns recent debate and developments in international law. The course through several examples of current international events will focus on treaty law, including the general rule of interpretation of treaties, the formation of rules in international law as well as their enforcement. More specifically the following fields will be dealt with: subjects of international law, UN and international courts, jurisdiction, including territorial waters and State immunity, State responsibility, including countermeasures. The students will have to form a better idea on the nature of international law as a coherent legal system. For this reason, the criticism addressed towards international law will be part of the discussion of the selected topics. This criticism will be addressed through an in-depth and up to date understanding of sources of international law, their legitimacy and normativity. It will also be tackled through a more in-depth learning of how States interact in bilateral and multilateral fora. This discussion will be placed in a broader reflection with regards to the idea of the emerging global law and the mistake of distinctions between national and international as well as public and private.

RMP132 International Adjudication Course Outline.docxRMP132 International Adjudication Course Outline.docx


This course introduces students to new scholarship in international adjudication which is broader than the focus on a few well-known permanent courts. It maps many if not all of the international adjudicative bodies that exist (or have existed) and groups them according to their respective missions or mandates. It also explores the different dispute resolution systems that rely on adjudication, both the familiar “open” systems and the so-called “closed” ones.

Teaching is based on (the modern American law school version of) the “Socratic method”, blurring the distinction between lecture and seminar. The course is, from beginning to end, interactive and classes require preparation.

European Union Law_Outline.docxEuropean Union Law_Outline.docx


The European Communities, from which the European Union evolved, were created in the 1950s as one (of many) experiments in addressing the problems of international cooperation in Europe. Consisting originally of 3 distinct Communities and 6 member states, it has undergone revolutionary growth and change, some organic, some by new rounds of treaty making.  It underwent significant constitutional reorientation in 1993 with the entry into force of the Treaty on European Union (or Maastricht Treaty) and has since its foundation absorbed another 22 countries, including a (re)unified Germany, 6 Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe and 3 erstwhile Soviet republics. It is the largest trading bloc in the world, and in December 2006 the Euro overtook the dollar as the world’s most traded currency (‘though with the economic and sovereign debt crises and the moribund Greek economy the wisdom of the Euro is coming increasingly to be questioned; this too will be considered). Anyone who had predicted this only 30 years ago would have been thought quite mad.

The Union (as it became in December 2009 with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty) is now an economic (but not only economic) quasi-federation, underpinned by the instruments which created it (the Treaties) which, although mere treaties, have grown into its constitution. According to the European Court of Justice (amongst many other things it does, the Union’s ‘constitutional court’), the original Treaty ‘albeit concluded in the form of an international agreement, none the less constitutes the constitutional charter of a Community based on the rule of law’ (Opinion 1/91 re the EEA Agreement [1991] ECR I-6079). The purpose of the course is to acquire an understanding of how this came to be so, and to consider the constitutional, institutional and substantive (economic) law of the house that Mr Monnet built.

The course is divided into two parts: the first half considers the nature of Community/Union law, its constitutional/institutional/procedural aspects, some familiarity with which is necessary properly to understand the substantive law which follows. Some consideration will be given to the changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, including the development of the Union’s embryonic External Action Service. The second half is the substantive law, itself divided into two halves: the law of the ‘common’ (now ‘internal’) market and the ‘four freedoms’ as it applies to public authorities (the ‘public law’ of the Treaties) and the law of the internal market as it applies to private persons – in other words, competition, or antitrust, law – the ‘private law’ of the Treaties.

We shall also touch upon 'Brexit', an event unprecedented in EU history. Was it an act of national liberation or one of crass, foolhardy recklessness? Whichever of the two, the enormity of the legal and economic difficulties of walking away are still scant understood. But it will crop up from time to time in our discussion.

RMP135 IHRL course_outline_2023_final.pdfRMP135 IHRL course_outline_2023_final.pdf


The aim of the course is to initiate students to the EU political system by introducing its institutions, governance, legislative processes as well as formal and informal decision-making procedures. The Lisbon Treaty offers a consolidated legal basis for a more effective decision-making. It has affected almost all policy fields in terms of competence distribution, power of the European Parliament and role of the European Commission. Member states still play a significant role in the legislative process that will be analysed step by step in the lectures and seminars. In order to distinguish differences of institutional power across different policy fields, students will prepare the course papers, reflecting the inter-institutional balance in different policy fields.

Member States are represented in the EU by national delegations that negotiate on behalf of their governments. Similarly, EU institutions empower groups of individuals to negotiate on their behalf. Accordingly, understanding bargaining situations is essential for acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the EU’s modus operandi. This course therefore includes a practical exercise of negotiations in the EU Council, i.e. negotiation simulation. The negotiation simulation is embedded in a real-life negotiation scenario on a Council document. It will allow students to better understand the functioning of the EU institutions.

Finally, the course addresses the issues of deepening of the EU through looking at different integration theories. In the proactive exchange with the audience the professors will introduce various scenarios for future development of the EU. Brexit issues will be analysed as a part of this discussion.

RMF140 EU Company Law Outline.pdfRMF140 EU Company Law Outline.pdf


The course aims at providing students with an in-depth knowledge of the basic features of European Company Law, with a comparative analysis, also outside the scope of the EU, of the most relevant features of the companies (e.g.: profit purpose, directors’ duties).

We will analyse the freedom of establishment in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice and some harmonized areas of company law, with a specific focus on company’s purpose and corporate governance issues.

RMJ126 CCCL - Course Outline.pdfRMJ126 CCCL - Course Outline.pdf


This course focuses on the analysis of commercial transactions, mainly contracts, from an international and comparative law perspective (see below Course Plan-Main Subjects). It is not based on the legal rules applicable to commercial contracts in one specific jurisdiction (domestic law), as this is more appropriate of nationally–oriented LLM studies, but on the principle that learning the law is not just about learning legal rules but also, and more importantly, about learning to think as a lawyer. Consequently, this is a course with a strong methodological component where students, in addition to having the chance to work with legal rules (mostly at a supranational level: EU, Int’l Conventions), will be given ample opportunities to learn about the legal problem-solving method at an international level. From this perspective, this course is intensively more practical than theoretical as students will have to read, analyse and discuss, first individually and later in the classroom, a number of problems and court cases representative of conflictive situations arising in the field of international commercial transactions (see below Course Plan-Sessions). Students will be provided with materials uploaded in the course intranet (more details on Course Plan-Sessions below) and will also receive recommendations on suggested readings and supplementary materials (see below Course Plan-Sessions and Course Literature)

RTL101-Digital Regulation Course Outline.pdfRTL101-Digital Regulation Course Outline.pdf


The term regulation has gained prominence in recent years in many different (academic) fields, including law, economics and finance, political science and policy making, environmental science, etc.. In this course we will look at the ways in which a wide variations of so-called ‘regulation’ are used to steer, guide, limit or promote specific behaviours by governments, institutions, businesses, sectors, and individuals across digital environments. We will discuss the strategies of regulation, the reasons why specific forms of regulation are chosen, the specific societal, economic, environmental, legal, political or public policy reasons, and what rationales underlie different forms of regulation and their effectiveness. Students will come to understand different regulatory strategies lawmakers and policymakers can choose from when tackling regulatory challenges.  Students should gain an understanding of the pros and cons of different types of regulation, and will learn to make an informed choice for, and to provide proper argumentative underpinnings for, specific forms of regulation in specific cases.

After an introduction we will focus explicitly on regulation and digital technologies. After briefly discussing the ways in which, and the reasons why digital technologies are regulated, we will turn to the main topic of this course: the use of law and technology to steer, guide, and regulate individuals’ behaviour. This has come to be known as ‘techno-nudging’ or ‘techno-regulation’. Techno-nudging can take several forms, ranging from nudging and persuading users to follow a certain course of action. Hard-coding normative or legal codes into technologies to make certain behaviours impossible and stimulate others. The theory is that by hard-coding rules into digital technologies and networked environments, users will automatically comply rather than being asked to make a choice on whether to follow these rules. Since regulation by technology is cost-effective, fool proof, and an efficient way of ensuring regulatees’ compliance with rules or norms, it is not surprising that this approach has spread rapidly. For policy makers, regulators, and technology developers using nudging is considered a valuable solution in ensuring compliance with a wide variety of norms and rules. Sometimes it is used to enforce legal rules, but often times there is an economic or practical drive behind the choice for this form of regulation. The lecture then moves to specific techniques of regulation before moving towards two different case studies (platform regulation and fake news/disinformation) that puts the lessons of the first nine weeks to practical use.

RTL105 Privacy and Data Protection Course Outline.pdfRTL105 Privacy and Data Protection Course Outline.pdf


With the advent of digitalization and emerging technologies, more information has the capacity to stray beyond the sphere of control of its owners than ever before. The development has been closely followed by concerns over the privacy and data protection of information owners.  This course comparatively and critically examines the legal aspects of privacy and data protection through the prisms of regulation, practice and academic scholarship. 

Data protection and privacy stems from fundamental values enshrined in several international instruments, such as the European Convention on Human Rights or the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These renditions have taken on a new facet of interpretation in the context of data-focused economies. The gamut of economic and social benefits must be balanced with short and long-term risks to individuals and organizations alike. In turn, the European Union states have agreed on several major regional norms, such as Directives 2002/58/EC and 2006/24/EC, as well as the General Data Protection Regulation coming into force May 2018 and Privacy Shield regulations on data transfers between the European Union and United States.

However, the issue of data protection and privacy becomes more complicated as it reaches the subsidiarity levels of structures closest to enforcing the norms. The borderless nature of the data domain denotes potentially transnational consequences for any decisions taken by state regulators. Together with various differences in interpretation and capacity, the current lack of privacy and data protection harmonisation among various states is a point of contention.

Concurrently, states are seeking the correct way to balance the interests of private parties, in spite of disparity in bargaining power. Within the European Union, all parties involved must comply with accountability principles and retain Data Protection Impact Assessments to various degrees before and after the creation of contractual relations. The same parties also hold responsibility for data breach notifications. Issues further delve into data interaction with the general public and individuals, via targeted advertising from private parties, or surveillance from the state.

This course delves into the aforementioned themes by tracing their development from inception to contemporaneity in doctrine and practice, critically appraising current paradigms in light of new technological praxis and discoveries.