This course primarily focuses on the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). During the classes, selected articles of the CISG will be analysed in-depth. By the end of the course, the students will have gained also knowledge and understanding about the main issues and challenges in contemporary international sales law.


This course focuses on the analysis of commercial transactions, mainly contracts, from an international and comparative law perspective. It is not based on the legal rules applicable to commercial contracts in one specific jurisdiction (domestic law). This is a course with a strong methodological component where students, in addition to having the chance to work with legal rules (mostly at a supranational level: EU, Int’l Conventions), will be given ample opportunities to learn about the legal problem-solving method at an international level. From this perspective, this course is intensively more practical than theoretical as students will have to read, analyze and discuss, first individually and later in the classroom, a number of problems and court cases representative of conflictive situations arising in the field of international commercial transactions. 


The finance course consists of two main blocks of lectures: Financial Accounting and Corporate Finance.

Starting the Finance course with the strong focus on the principles of preparation and reading of Financial Statements of a company (including financial ratios), the second part of the course shifts the focus on decisions the company is making on its financing as well as its new projects.


This course offers students a deeper understanding of the role and functioning of international courts and tribunals in the resolution of disputes between states. It will gives them insight in the contribution of these institution to the “progressive development of public international law”. Landmark rulings will be discussed of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and a number of important international arbitral tribunals. One very recent case will be given special attention and analyzed in detail. The course is, from beginning to end, interactive and classes require preparation. Students are expected to read and study the judgements and arbitral awards of the cases discussed in class and should, when called upon, be able to recite the facts of these cases in a clear and coherent fashion.


The course provides an overview of international and European human rights regimes, including the main standards and protection mechanisms. The course is structured in two parts. The first part introduces UN human rights system and examines the two Covenants and mechanisms for the protection and promotion of human rights. It discusses in detail selected economic, social and cultural rights, such as the right to health, as well as civil and political rights, such as freedom of expression. It then outlines the regional human rights systems, with a particular focus on the European system. Lastly, it introduces philosophical underpinnings of human rights and addresses some contemporary challenges to human rights.

The second part of the course focuses on the examination of the substantive human rights law, offering a comparative perspective involving a number of human rights protection instruments, with a special focus on the ICCPR and ECHR. It discusses the understanding of the obligation to protect human rights, including jurisdictional aspects and the application of human rights in times of emergency. Further, it considers such rights as the right to life, prohibition of inhumane or degrading treatment, or torture, the right to liberty and security, the right to fair trial as well as the right to private life, especially taking into account the contemporary challenges associated with armed conflicts and security threats. It also discusses the challenges regarding the compliance with the decisions of the human right judicial bodies and the redress to the victims of human rights violations. 


This course focuses on a specific policy field of the EU, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), which by its development throughout the treaties enhanced the EU’s potential as a global actor. The CFSP is often approached as one of the most contested policy fields: some analysts speak about ‘diplomacy without state’, others argue that the so-called Common Foreign and Security Policy is neither common, nor can it be called a foreign policy’. The reality in the field, however, is that the implementation of the CFSP has resulted in an increasing number of concrete missions that are conducted in increasingly diverse locations on the world map. In many respects, these missions, which do not always receive extensive media attention, largely contribute to give the EU a status of International Actor.

The problems in terms of coherence can be explained by institutional setup in the CFSP policy making, i.e. by internal institutional power balance, as well as by divergent preferences of the member states.  In order to understand the dynamics of the CFSP, this course addresses three main aspects of the European Foreign and Security Policy – (1) actors, (2) policy instruments and (3) actions. 

(1)        ACTORS:

Lectures will focus on the actors within the CFSP and CSDP, including the modifications by the Lisbon Treaty. The knowledge on institutional setup and governance will be evaluated by a multiple choice exam, which tests the understanding of structures and decision-making reflected in the lectures and in the mandatory course literature.


Lectures and case studies will focus specifically on different means how the policy objectives are implemented, by addressing CFSP/CSDP instruments. This includes a discussion on enlargement, partnerships, European Neighbourhood policy, EU global strategy, etc.

(3)        ACTIONS:

In the topical case studies, students working in small groups further concentrate on a concrete ongoing regional/ geopolitical situation and discover how the CFSP of the EU applies to it.  A group presentation of the subject by the students triggers a Q&A and a class-wide group discussion, the purpose of which is to discuss the effectiveness and the practical ‘actorness’ of the EU on a global stage.

 The course starts with a historic overview of attempts at military integration in Europe in the 1950s, then introduces the European Political cooperation (EPC), and follows the development of the CFSP and European Security and Defence policy (ESDP/CSDP).

The course offers an interactive and hands-on approach. Besides a limited number of theoretical lectures to understand the frame and the dynamics of the CFSP, students will engage in practical work through topical case studies and group presentations. In a realistic crisis management exercise, students will become actors of CFSP by simulating a meeting of the Political and Security Committee addressing an emerging security crisis. They will write and present an opening statement outlining the position of the member state that they represent in the simulation and participate in the decision making process leading to a recommendation to the Council of Ministers. 


The course consists of five related parts. The first part will be devoted to introducing the basic notions of money, credit, interest rates, and financial markets. The second part focuses on banks, risks to banking activity, central banking and financial system. The third part focuses on money supply and money demand. This will be followed by the study of the institutional structure, goals, strategy and operating procedures of the European Central Bank. The fourth part of the course will be devoted to discussing the monetary policy transmission mechanism in the context of an open economy. The fifth part address issues in banking regulation and supervision with a focus on the EU.